Tuesday, June 30, 2020
Managing Financial Resources and Decisions Table of Contents Introduction..3 Discuss the main financial statements (AC4.1)..3 Compare appropriate formats of financial statements for different businesses (AC4.2)..6 Interpret financial statements using ratios (AC4.3)..8 Conclusion.. ..12 Bibliography. 13 Appendix.14 Introduction Financial Statements shows an official record of the monetary activities of a business (Butler, 1993). These are written reports that compute the monetary strength, performance and liquidity of a business. It reflects the financial impacts of a business transactions and events on the business. Financial statements are prepared using the concept of Double entry bookkeeping. The equation is: Assets= Liabilities + Equity For the accounts to remain in balance, a change in one account must be matched with a change in another account. These changes are made by debits and credits in the accounts. Discuss the main financial statements (AC4.1) The following are the main financial statement: Balance sheet Balance Sheet displays the fiscal position of a company at a given date (Khan Jain, 2007). Balance sheet has three main elements: Assets: Something a business claims or controls (e.g. Cash, stock, land and building, and so forth) Liabilities: Something a business owes to somebody (e.g. lenders, bank credits, and so on). Equity: It is what a company owes to its ho lders. It is the difference between assets and liabilities. It shows what a company has left after paying off its liabilities. Profit and loss Statement It represents a companys profit or loss over a period of time. It has the accompanying two components: Income: What the business has earned over a period (e.g. deals income, profit wage, and so on) (Khan Jain, 2007). Expense: The expense caused by the business over a period (e.g. pay rates and wages, devaluation, rental charges, and so forth) Net profit is calculated by deducting costs from sales/revenue. Cash Flow Statement It displays the movement of cash over a certain period of time. This movement is grouped into the accompanying fragments: Operating Activities: Represents the money stream from normal activities of a business. Investing Activities: Represents money stream from buying or sales of assets other than inventories (e.g. buying a manufacturing plant). Financing Activities: Represents mon ey stream generated or used on raising and reimbursing share capital and debt together with the payments of interests and dividends. Statement of Changes in Equity It details movements in the holders equity over a fiscal year (Troy, 2009). It is deduced from the accompanying segments: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Net Profit or loss throughout the period as reported in the profit and loss statement. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Share capital issued or reimbursed throughout the period Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Dividend payments. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Gains or losses perceived straightforwardly in equity (e.g. revaluation surpluses) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Effects of rectification of accounting errors. Link between Financial Statements The following diagram summarizes the link between financial statements. Compare appropriate formats of financial statements for different businesses (AC4.2) The four fundamental formats for trading as a profit making organisation in UK are sole traders, partnership, priva te limited company and public limited company. Sole Trader A sole trader is a sole owner of the business. The sole trader is not a separate entity from the business which means if the business gets bankrupt; the sole trader will need to pay off any debts. There is no formal requirement to register the sole traderÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s business but he/she needs to register with the Inland Revenue and Customs and excise for tax purposes. A sole trader can prepare their own accounts. He/she can do so under the self assessment scheme. Partnership It is somewhat similar to sole trader except that there are more than one person involved in a partnership. Usually a partnership can be made from 2 to 20 individuals. Each partner is responsible for the actions of others. The liability is unlimited which means if the business go bankrupt, they will need to pay off the debts from their pockets. Each partner is taxed individually via self assessment route. A partnership may or may not audit its accounts from a professional firm or an accountant. Private Limited company These are normally family run business. Privately owned businesses may issue stock and have shareholders. Notwithstanding, their shares dont exchange on open market. Shareholders will most likely be unable to offer their shares without the understanding of other shareholders. Advantages Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢limited Liability: It implies that if the organization experience budgetary misery in view of typical business movement, the particular holdings of shareholders wont be at danger of being seized by creditors (Butler, 1993). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Continuity of presence: business not influenced by the status of the owner. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Minimum number of shareholders need to begin the business are only2. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢More capital could be raised as the maximum number of shareholders permitted is 50. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Scope of development is higher in light of the fact that itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s simple to raise capital from financial organizations and advantage of limited liability. Disadvantages Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Growth may be constrained in light of the fact that maximum shareholders permitted are just 50. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢The shares in a private limited organization cant be sold or exchanged to any other person without the agreement of other shareholders. The accounts of private limited companies must be prepared by an external accountant in certain circumstances, for example large companies. The accounts need to be submitted to Companies House every year. The accounts for limited companies are normally simpler and often prepared by anyone in the company. Public Limited company Most facts between private and public companies are same. Public companies are usually bigger in size. There must be an authorised share issue of at least ÃâÃ £50,000 of which ÃâÃ £12,500 must be fully paid. Shares can be traded on stock exchange. An external q ualified accountant needs to prepare the accounts and must be submitted to Companies House every year. There are requirements regarding the format of the accounts. The balance sheet must be prepared either using vertical or horizontal formats. The Profit and loss account could have four formats; two vertical and two horizontal. There is also requirement for showing the figures from previous fiscal years in the accounts. Once a business adopts any specific format, it needs to be adopted for the future to ensure consistency in accounts. Interpret financial statements using ratios (AC4.3) XYZ Ltd is hypothetical company with rivals ABC Ltd and DEF Ltd. The ratios cover a three year period (Jan 2010-Dec 2012) in order to show how XYZ Ltd is standing in terms of its competitors in the industry. XYZ Ltd is one of the largest energy companies in the world providing its customers with fuel for transportation, energy for heat and light, retail services and petrochemical products for everyday items. The financial ratios are categorised into following main areas: Profitability Ratio. Return on Investment Ratio. Liquidity Ratio. Long Term Financial Stability Ratio Efficiency Ratio 1) Profitability Ratio Armstrong (1999) Profitability ratio is a key financial indicator in order to analysis companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial position. It helps to identify whether the company is generating acceptable profit or not. Gross Profit Margin It shows how well a company is controlling its production costs. It is calculated as a ratio of gross profit to revenue a company is able to generate over its period of operation. It is a very good measure in order to analysis a company performance within the same industry. XYZÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Gross profit margin is fairly stable over the last two years. Its 31.1% in 2012 compared to ABC Ltd which is 16.6%, although DEF Ltd has the highest gross profit margin among the lot which is 35.8%. XYZ has achieved this through tight control over its production department. The decrease in GPM compared to 2010 is due to the weakening of US natural gas prices. (Appendix 4). Net Profit Margin Armstrong (1999) it is calcu lated by dividing the net profit over the Sales generated in the year. XYZÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Net profit margin was 13.3 % in 2010 while in 2012 its 11.1%. The decrease is due to the incident in a particular refinery in 2010 and because of that the company is making an expenditure of around $340 million as a restructuring cost. ABCÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s net profit margin has also gone down from 14.8 % in 2010 to 14.2 % in 2012 while the ratio increased in case of DEF to an impressive figure of 22% in 2012. (Appendix4) 2) Return on Investment Ratio This ratio tells us whether a company is generating enough return on the investment. (Armstrong, 1999) Return on Equity ROE is an important ratio and it is used to identify the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s ability to generate a profit over the investment of its shareholders. It is calculated as a ratio of companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s after tax profits to shareholder funds which also includes reserves. (Armstrong, 1999) XYZÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s ROE in 2012 was 22.5 % which means that the company is able to generate 22c over a $ investment by the shareholders. But it has declined by 17.3% and 6.1 % compared to 2011 and 2010 respectively. It is due to the fact that the company has sold some of its fixed assets over which it suffered a loss also some of the impairment losses which significantly reduced its PAT figure. ABCÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s ROE figure has decreased from 27.1% to 24.4% from 2010 to 2011. DEFÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s has fairly maintained its ROE and its moving around 31 %. (Appendix 5) 3) Liquidity Ratio These ratios measure a companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s capabilities to meet its short term obligations as and when they fall due. These ratios also assess how well a company is managing its working capital requirements. (Troy, 2009) Current ratio Troy (2009) a current ratio of 2 considered very well as it means that the company has doubled its liquid assets compared to its current liabilit ies to pay off. Ratio below 1 is considered quite risky as it poses a threat to the survival of the company and also the going concern status. As a rule of thumb a ratio of 1.5 considered as normal. The current ratio in case of XYZ was 1.03 in 2012 compared to 0.99 in 2011. It is due to the fact that the company has increased its cash and cash equivalent by an impressive 37.5% compared to 2011. In case of ABC its 1.2 in 2012 compared to 1.19 in 2011 which is higher than ABC. DEF has A ratio of 1.35 in 2012 (Appendix 6). Quick Ratio Troy (2009) Quick ratio is just an adjustment in current ratio in order to assess the business ability to meet its obligation with the readily available liquid assets. Stock is deducted from current assets because itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s not considered to be readily convertible into cash. In case of XYZ, the quick ratio was 0.69 in 2012, compared to 0.74 and 0.78 in 2011 and 2010 respectively which means that the company is sitting on the ind ustry norm and if some of the creditors demand their money quickly, it poses a problem the company although some of the current liability like tax could be paid nine months after the end of the financial year. As far as ABC is concerned, there was also a gradual decrease from 0.91 in 2010 to 0.88 in 2012. In case of DEF, the quick ratio was highest which 0.96 is in 2012. (Appendix 6) 4) Long Term Financial Stability Ratio This ratio considers companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s long term financial health in order to identify its ability to pay off its debts in relation to provider and holder and also if there are any loan covenants which could be enforced which in turn poses a threat to the survival of the business (Troy, 2009). Interest Cover It estimates the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s ability to pay off interest over its borrowings. As a general rule, a cover over 3 considered as safe but it varies industry to industry. (Troy, 2009) XYZÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Interest cover i n 2012 was 29.1 compared to 48.9 and 53 in 2011 and 2010 respectively. Although there was a decrease, it is fairly safe in order for a company to meet its obligations in the long run. (Appendix 7) 5) Efficiency Ratio It shows how well a company is utilizing its resources in order to generate good return. (Armstrong, 1999) Inventory Turnover This ratio indicates how quickly a company is able to sell its inventory. The more is the ratio, the more is the demand of the product. (Troy, 2009) XYZÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s inventory turnover was 13.2 in 2012 compared to 10.1 and 12.1 in 2011 and 2012 respectively. It means that the products of XYZ are in high demand. ABC and DEF showed a reduced figure of 9.4 and 6.3 in 2007. (Appendix 8) Receivable Days It shows how quickly a company is able to convert its debtors into cash. This ratio is usually in days. (Troy, 2009) XYZ has shown impressive figures of 41, 43 and 50 days in 2012, 2011 and 2010 respectively. The decrease is due to the fact that the company has tight policies over its credit and there is a strong internal control system is in placed to ensure that debtors pay on time. In case of ABC, there was an increase in debtor days of 76 in 2012 compared to 68 in 2011. (Appendix 8) Conclusion XYZ Ltd has been able to show constantly great performance as far as financial and non-financial part of operation. However, the organization has been confronting with a few issues that are demonstrated by the financial ratios. This might be illuminated by enhancing the development programs, by investing into other markets, and even, having a partnership or alliance with other organizations in distinctive parts of the globe. This could be carried out by further focusing on sources of funds and by attracting more investors. With this, the organization can achieve diverse projects and strategies that will aid in order to prevent or at least, decrease the effect of financial issues towards the orga nization. It will be helpful if XYZ Ltd will proceed and even enhance its effort especially with respect to forecasting. This will encourage guaranteeing that the strategies and decisions to be implemented by the organization will be successful in helping the organization to survive the worldwide financial crisis and enhance its position in the global market. Bibliography Private limited company (2014). Available: https://www.dineshbakshi.com/igcse-business-studies/business-organisation/revision-notes/879-private-limited-companies. [Last accessed 24 May 2014] Financial statements (2014). Available: https://accounting-simplified.com/financial/statements/types.html. [Last accessed 24 May 2014] NetMBA. Financial Ratios (2013). Available: https://www.netmba.com/finance/financial/ratios/ [Accessed 24 May 2014]. Bates, B, Goodman, S Ladson, W, de Varies, C Botha, S (2005), Business Management: Fresh Perspective, Pearson South Africa Butler, R (1993). Strategic Invest ment Decisions: Theory, Practice and Processes, Taylor Francis. Khan Jain 2007, Financial Management, Tata McGraw-Hill. Gorma, T (2003), The Complete IdiotÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Guide to MBA Basics, Alpha Books. Armstrong, M (1999), Financial Principles and Techniques. Price, A D F (1995), International Project Accounting, International Labor Organization. Troy, L (2009), Almanac of Business and Industrial Financial Ratios, CCH. Appendix Appendix 1 The companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s budgeted balance sheet is drawn as follows. XYZ Balance sheet 2012 2011 2010 $million $million $million Noncurrent assets Property Plant equipments 155,365 142,453 131,876 Current assets Trade receivables 33,012 32,460 33,565 Inventory 26,554 18,915 19,760 Cash and bank balance 19856 24,876 25,876 Total Current assets 80,202 75,339 75,290 Total assets 236,076 217,601 206,914 Share capital 158,845 142,249 115,987 Current liabilities Trade creditors 43,152 42,236 42,136 Total payables 77,231 75,352 71,497 Total equity and liability 236,076 217,601 206,914 Appendix 2 Income Statement 2012 2011 2010 $million $million $million Revenue 291,438 274,316 245,486 Cost of Sales 200,766 187,183 163,026 Gross Profit 90,672 87,133 82,460 Operating Expenses Production and Manufacturing 25,915 23,793 28,226 Distribution and Administration 15,371 14,417 10,776 Others 17,034 13,735 10,776 Operating Expenses 58,320 51,945 49,778 Net Profit (GP-OS) 32,352 35,188 32,682 Appendix 3 Operating Profit Per Annum ( Amount in $ Millions) 2012 2011 2010 Operating Profit in the Year 32,352 35,158 32,682 % Change Year by Year growth (7.9) 7.5 Appendix 4 Profitability Ratios ( Amount in $ Millions) Ratio 2012 2011 2010 Gross Profit Margin (GPM) 31.1% 31.7% 34.3% Gross Profit (Sales Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Cost of Sales) 90,672 87,133 82,460 Sales Revenue 291,438 274,316 245,486 Net Profit Margin ( NPM) 11.1% 12.8% 13.3% Profit Before Interest and Tax (PBIT) 32,352 35,158 32,682 Sales Revenue 291,438 274,316 245,486 Appendix 5 Return On Investment Ratios ( Amount in $ Millions) Return On Equity (ROE) 22.5% 26.4% 28.0% Profit After Tax (PAT) 21,169 22,311 22,448 Ordinary Share Capital and Reserves 93,690 84,624 Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) 20.3% 24.7% 24.1% Profit Before Interest and Tax (PBIT) 32,352 35,158 32,682 Capital Employed 158,845 142,249 Appendix 6 Liquidity Ratios ( Amount in $ Millions) Ratio 2012 2011 2010 Current Ratio 1.03 0.99 1.05 Current Assets 80,202 75,339 75,290 Current Liabilities 77,231 75,352 71,497 Quick Ratio 0.69 0.74 0.78 Current assets-Stock 53,648 56,424 55,530 Current liabilities 77,231 75,352 71,497 Appendix 7 Long Term Financial Stability Ratios (Amount in $ Millions) Ratio 2012 2011 2010 Interest Cover (Times) 29.1 48.9 53.0 Profit Before Interest and Tax (PAT) 32,352 35,158 32,682 Finance Cost 1,110 718 616 Appendix 8 Efficiency Ratios ( Amount in $ millions) Ratio 2012 2011 2010 Inventory Turnover 13.2 10.1 12.1 Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) 200,766 187,183 163,026 Inventory 26,554 18,915 19,760 Asset Turnover 1.23 1.26 1.18 Revenue 291,438 274,316 245,486 Total Asset 236,076 217,601 206,914 Receivable Turnover (Days) 41 43 50 Trade Receivables 33,012 32,460 33,565 Sales 291,438 274,316 245,486 Creditors payment period (Days) 78.1 82.3 94.3 Trade creditors 43,152 42,236 42,136 Average Purchases 200,766 187,183 163,026 Appendix 9 InvestorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Ratios ( Amount in $ Millions) Ratio 2012 2011 2010 Earnings Per Share (EPS) Basic 108.7c 109.8c 105.7c EPS Diluted 107.84 109.12 103.66 Appendix 10 COMPETITOR DATA 2012 2011 2010 Gross Profit Margin (GPM) ABC Ltd 16.6% 17.5% 17.6% DEF Ltd 35.8% 37.1% 39.9% Net Profit Margin (NPM) ABC Ltd 14.2% 14.3% 14.8% DEF Ltd 22% 18.1% 20.6% Return On Equity (ROE) ABC Ltd 24.4% 23% 27.1% DEF Ltd 31.0% 32.0% 31.1% Return On Capital Employed (ROCE) ABC Ltd 24.2% 29% 34% DEF Ltd 38.1% 39.3% 33.2% Current Ratio (Times) ABC Ltd 1.2 1.19 1.15 DEF Ltd 1.35 1.27 1.30 Quick ratio (Times) ABC Ltd 0.88 0.89 0.91 DEF Ltd 0.96 0.92 0.92 Interest Cover ABC Ltd 36.7 32.8 34.9 DEF Ltd 16.6 16.4 19.9 Inventory Turnover ABC Ltd 9.41 11.32 12.77 DEF Ltd 6.33 7.09 5.53 Asset Turnover ABC Ltd 1.32 1.35 1.39 DEF Ltd 1.2 1.26 1.10 Receivable turnover (Days) ABC Ltd 76 68 78 DEF Ltd 51 47 61 Creditors payment period(Days) ABC Ltd 93 87 81 DEF Ltd 53 54 57 Page 1 of 20
Saturday, May 30, 2020
For thousands of years, history has been kept alive through the written word; me and women of virtue, in particular, have recorded social struggles so that future generations can know about the events that transpired over the course of their lifetimes. Through Freedom in the Family, Patricia Stephens Due and Tananarive Due set about to make sure that the injustices that they and countless other African Americans experienced during the Civil Rights Movement would never be forgotten. In their memoir, the mother and daughter duo enumerated all the obstacles they had to overcome in their fight for freedom for themselves and for their family. Their story is one of a search for purpose, identity, and a desire to be free amongst a sea of discrimination and injustice, but above all, it is a piece of history that has been uncovered in the hopes that it will never be repeated. Patricia and Tananarive both state their purposes for writing this memoir in the first few chapters in a way that is effective at setting the tone for the memoir and emphasizing the importance of what the writers are undertaking. Patricia tells a short anecdote of a time when she was sitting on a textbook committee and realized none of the textbooks mentioned Tallahassee with regards to the Civil Rights Movement. She writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Without written documentation, I was told, the forty-nine days my sister and I spent in jail, the tear gas that burned my eyes, and the people I knew could not be includedÃ¢â¬ (2). It is at this moment that Patricia realizes she and her fellow freedom fighters are not yet a part of history, and so she writes this memoir with the intention of turning their story into history. Storytelling is important to the Due family, and this sentiment is echoed by Tananarive in her first chapter as she describes the Holocaust survivor telling her story in Miami Beach . Tananarive laments, Ã¢â¬Å"Soon she [the Holocaust survivor] will be gone, and all of her stories will go with herÃ¢â¬ (5). Tananarive wants to make her own story more concrete so that it does not disappear with her. She want to make sure that Ã¢â¬Å"the children of strangersÃ¢â¬ ¦ will never, ever forgetÃ¢â¬ the sufferings of an entire race, and this becomes her main purpose for writing Freedom in the Family (6). Something to note is the effectiveness of both womenÃ¢â¬â¢s tone in their opening chapters. Both Patricia and Tananarive speak with a tone of urgency and an underlying sense of fear of what could happen if they do not complete this task. This tone lends credibility to the actions they will later describe, for it makes it easier to see them as the fierce activists that they are, fearing not for what would happen to them because of their actions but for what would happen to the world if they not take action immediately. There is no doubt that, through Patricia and TananariveÃ¢â¬â¢s doing, Freedom in the Family has become a part of history. However, it is unlike most of the history that students will read in their classes because the way the way that events and people are described makes it feel like history is coming alive for readers. This is one of the most effective tools the writers use, for it makes the events that they are describing stay in the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ minds long after they close the book. For example, take TananariveÃ¢â¬â¢s description of Patricia when she goes to meet the officers who are accusing her husband of stealing machine guns in his black van. According to Tananarive, her mother Ã¢â¬Å"stood in [the policeÃ¢â¬â¢s] overwhelming spotlight that night in a short, sheer slip as through she wore a bulletproof vestÃ¢â¬ ¦. My mother never flinched, and she sure wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t about to startÃ¢â¬ (215). That imagery evoked by those few sentences is electrifying in a way that most depictions of history are not. That brief instance of history is described in a way that makes it seem like it is the climax of a captivating thriller. Most of the memoir is written in a similar fashion; the endings of most chapters contain either elements of foreshadowing or other strong declarative statements about various personages that add to the dramatic feel to this part of history. These descriptions further demonstrate the importance of storytelling to the Due family. They want their history to be more than just dull and boring like the textbooks that Patricia was reading in her opening chapter; they want their history to be stories that later generations can remember and share with others. An additional element of the memoir that makes it so captivating is its modern-day relevance. The way that the struggles that the authors as well as other people they describe in their memoir are depicted, with such vivid detail and expressive language, make them very easy to relate to. An underlying theme of the memoir is that many of the issues that Patricia and Tananarive faced are issues that people today face, no matter what race they are. Take the issue of identity and belonging that Tananarive struggles with during her years at Northwestern University. When Tananarive writes, Ã¢â¬Å"I felt like a white woman in blackface when I set foot in FMO [For Members Only, a black student organization] meetings,Ã¢â¬ she is expressing feelings of displacement in her college campus (108). These issues of discomfort in her own skin and a lack of connection with her peers are problems that plague many college, and even high school, students today, and it is almost comforting to read that even a woman that has done so many extraordinary things still struggles with the most ordinary human emotions. Additionally, Freedom in the Family tackles the issue of finding out what the purpose of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is. This issue is blatantly expressed when John says, Ã¢â¬Å"[Civil rights] was my life. PatriciaÃ¢â¬â¢s always talking about that, how itÃ¢â¬â¢s my whole lifeÃ¢â¬ (151). The issue of what one is supposed to be doing with their life, of how they can make a difference in the world is one that many people, both young and old, struggle with today and that is depicted beautifully in Freedom in the Family. The structure of the memoir is another element of the work that makes it relevant for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s readers. The fact that the book is laid out so there are two stories being told, each a generation apart and yet completely intertwined with one another, implies the ongoing nature of history. The is no set beginning or end to any period in history. The story of the civil rights movement as told by Patricia and Tananarive spans two generations, and the structure of the memoir implies that there is no reason why it cannot be an issue of the following generationÃ¢â¬âthe generation of college students today. This problem is not yet over. Patricia even alludes to actions of activists in modern times that echoes the actions of the activists she worked with when she was in college when she describes observing a Ã¢â¬Å"sit-in [in 2000] outside of Florida Governor Jeb BushÃ¢â¬â¢s office in Tallahassee. [She] felt as if [she] had stepped back in timeÃ¢â¬ (364). She also writes about ho w that same year, Tallahassee was the site of the largest protest march in the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s history. Patricia ends her memoir with the words Ã¢â¬Å"History happens one person at a timeÃ¢â¬ (369.) These words demonstrate that there is still history being made in the field of civil rights; however, it is up to this new generation to record their history and keep it alive. Undoubtedly, one of the most important themes of the work is the importance of recording oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own history, but just as important is recognizing the fact that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own history may still be ongoing. Had Freedom in the Family been written when Patricia and Tananarive were older, more specifically when TananariveÃ¢â¬â¢s children were grown up, there most likely be three intertwining stories instead of two, for even the next generation of Dues would have something to say with regards to civil rights. Patricia and Tananarive were strong and determined activists, and they played a major role in the Civil Rights Movement in Florida, but there are intense battles to be fought against discrimination today. The Dues knew this, for there is no sense of finality to their work. The memoir is left open-ended because there is still work to be done. The Dues accomplished their purpose in writing this memoir; they wanted to record their history so they could share it with others and so that it would never be forgotten. Beyond that, it is important that their history be remembered so that it is never repeated. In other words, so that no more young African Americans have to go to jail for fighting for freedom, be tear gassed for expressing their opinion, or be afraid that the entire world is against them. Whether this goal of the memoir was ultimately accomplished remains to be seen. Only can the actions of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation can be the judge of that.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
There are numerous implications of religion in human society. Perhaps, the main positive ones are its ability to stimulate a perception of meaning in life, sympathy, mercifulness and love of others. Among the disapproving implications are included opinionated, ferocious behaviors contrary to other people of different religions, and the mishandling of power and supremacy. Future results for religious people can create communities of people who support one another. I would say that one recognized pro of a religion is the idea of certainty in something superior to oneself. In a realm where there is so many who display so much of ego and self-praise, religion allows individuals to conquer their own idea of self towards a better end. This is a good factor in terms of being capable of seeing oneself as part of something greater and not the demise in its own right. Along these stances, the concept of being able to do fair to others in the name of something more can only benefit to make soci ety and the people within it excel. When an atheist declines faith in God, he discards any source of sureness beyond his own level of solving or comprehending. The assuming atheist will always question the basis of the universe, will be confused regarding morality, and will be insecure of his own fate and purpose in life. So how are atheist people better than Christian people? This question is often at the center of religious dispute. Many non-believers have progressively claimed that they relyShow MoreRelatedReligion - Good or Bad?1453 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDecember 2008 Religion Causes More Harm Than Good ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the twenty first century. Scientists have found evidence of water on Mars, they have successfully cloned human embryos, and everyday, they are getting closer to finding a cure for cancer. Still, in a world of groundbreaking facts and evidences, where the newest discovery leaves older ones out of commission, we fool ourselves into blindly putting faith on a series of chronicles conceived during the primitive age. Religion probably startedRead MoreWhy Religion Is Good Or Bad Essay1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Religion is constructed on faith and belief of an individual even though it is the individual choice to follow it or not. It has stirred a lot of debates for years; those who are trying to prove that God exists throughout history and follow to modern day. While, those who are atheist are trying to prove their point of God does not exist. There are still more and more theories and debate over the subject of religious view. It is a matter of theism versus atheism; new an d old philosophers have joinedRead MoreReligion s Influence On Crime893 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswas because of his religion. Some religion are good and bad, but the bad one can be dangerous to people. The bad religions are composed of bad morals and belief you are thought when you are young, and is difficult for some individuals to change it back. However there might be many more influences that encourages a criminal, but religion is the main cause. Similar to 9/11 there is many others examples that show religion influence is the cause of deaths. The article Ã¢â¬Å"Does Religion Suppress, SocializeRead MoreTaking a Look at Morality1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesorder to have a strong morality one must first have a religion. On the other hands, others believe that there is no such thing as a having morals only if religion is involved. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to analyze because for many years we have been thought to believe that religion is a way of spirituality that will help our lives instead of corrupting it. I think that the main purpose of every religion is to help their neighbors and promote their God as the fully good and omnipotent which I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s a great actionRead Moreworld view chart writing assignment Eddie Lundy Essay1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesVIEW of GOOD and EVIL in VARIOUS RELIGIONS Eddie Lundy Paula Hayes World Religions June 8, 2015 Various religions define good and evil in various ways. However, one thing is certain. Since our society has existed, good and evil have also been in existence and many religions see them as two sides of the same coin. Some religions see them as counterparts, one of which focuses on promotion of happiness and the other on everything evil or all that is contrary to happiness. Every religion and mythologyRead MoreThe After Life Of Hinduism, Buddhism, And Daoism1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The After-life of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Daoism Hinduism, Buddhism, and Daoism are all religions that connect in more than one way. One major way that these religions connect is through the afterlife, otherwise known as the unconditioned reality. Hinduism and Buddhism have very similar views on the afterlife while Daoism has a slightly different view. In the end, they all have the same goal which is to achieve the final state that lasts forever. Even though this is true, that does not mean theyRead MoreResponsibility in Religion Essay672 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesimportantly my Bible, to know how to differentiate the right from the wrong. Through the good and the detestable the joys and the sorrows, I always managed to live through the mistakes I made. It then became intuitive for me to know when it was right to laugh or cry, or to feel happy or sad. The young woman, I am today is exactly who I want to be, with the addition of being more responsible, staying dedicated to my religion and choosing the right friends. Thus, I will change my future for the better. Read MoreEssay on Teleological and Deontological Ethical Systems916 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesethical systems. Ethical formalism is a deontological ethical system and Utilitarianism is a teleological ethical system. There are five other major ethical systems besides teleological and deontological. Those other five major ethical systems are religion, natural law, the ethics of virtue, the ethics of care and egoism. All the ethical systems will be discussed and examples of each will be provided so that a better understanding of each is made. The Deontological ethical system is one that isRead MoreHinduism And Buddhism : Buddhism942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesoriginated in India a very different world and origin than the other main religions. What is now called Hinduism began in India around 2000 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. Minorities in religion Hinduism and Buddhism are still well known and are growing in its followers from all over the world not just limited to the traditional geographical locations. Hinduism and Buddhism are different in many ways than other religions like Christianity and Judaism. Hinduism and Buddhism have very similarRead MoreGod Is Good And Evil1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe naturally good world has been corrupted by evil, and a God is going to restore it to its nature. Apparently, the restoration is indeed obvious. It is shown through the everlasting teachings of kindness, harmony, and peace. Men are smart, but they are selfish and ignorant, making them unable to invent such moral teachin gs. Hence, those teachings, or Laws, are derived from an another sourceÃ¢â¬âGodÃ¢â¬âwho is perfectly selfless. Indeed, Christianity is sensical, for there are evidences that God is making
Saturday, May 16, 2020
The Seneca Falls Convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Many individuals cite this convention asÃ the beginning of the womens movement in America. However, the idea for the convention came about at another protest meeting: the 1840 World Anti-Slavery ConventionÃ held in London. At that convention, the female delegates were not allowed to participate in the debates. Lucretia Mott wrote in her diary that even though the convention was titled a World convention, that was mere poetical license. She had accompanied her husband to London, but had to sit behind a partition with other ladies such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton. They took a dim view of their treatment, or rather mistreatment, and the idea of a womens convention was born. The Declaration of Sentiments In the interim between the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention and the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, Elizabeth Cady Stanton composed the Declaration of Sentiments, a document declaring the rights of women modeled on the Declaration of Independence. It is worth noting that upon showing her Declaration to her husband, Mr. Stanton was less than pleased. He stated that if she read the Declaration at the Seneca Falls Convention, he would leave town. The Declaration of Sentiments contained several resolutions including ones that stated a man should not withhold a womans rights, take her property, or refuse to allow her to vote. The 300 participants spent July 19th and 20th arguing, refining and voting on the Declaration. Most of the resolutions received unanimous support. However, the right to vote had many dissenters including one very prominent figure, Lucretia Mott. Reaction to the Convention The convention was treated with scorn from all corners. The press and religious leaders denounced the happenings at Seneca Falls. However, a positive report was printed at the office of The North Star, Frederick Douglass newspaper. As the article in that newspaper stated, [T]here can be no reason in the world for denying to woman the exercise of the elective franchise....Ã Many leaders of the Womens Movement were also leaders in the Abolitionist Movement and vice-versa. However, the two movements while occurring at approximately the same time were in fact very different. While the abolitionist movement was fighting a tradition of tyranny against the African-American, the womens movement was fighting a tradition of protection. Many men and women felt that each sex had its own place in the world. Women were to be protected from such things as voting and politics. The difference between the two movements is emphasized by the fact that it took women 50 more years to achieve suffrage than it did African-American men.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Queen Victoria Prince Albert were born May 24, 1819 and August 26, 1819. Prince Albert was Queen VictoriaÃ¢â¬â¢s husband. Albert was devoted to helping his wife serve as monarch and over time he became an essential aid to the queen that advised her on political and diplomatic affairs. Their marriage was very happy and they loved each other and being together. They were portrayed as an ideal family. Albert tragically died in 1861, at the age of 42. For many years after his death Victoria lived in isolation, and eventually appeared more in public, but continued to wear black, mourning his death for the rest of her life. Queen Victoria died many years later on January 22, 1901. Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise, Princess Royal was their firstÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Alfred Ernest Albert was born on August 6, 1844. He had a successful career in the Navy, rising eventually to be Admiral of the Fleet. Alfred married Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia and they had six children. When his uncle Ernst died, he became Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He lived his last years unhappily missing life at sea and increasing marital difficulties along with the death of his only son. He died July 30, 1900. Helena Augusta Victoria was born on May 25, 1846. She married Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein having a relatively happy marriage until ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s death is 1917. She had six children, two who died in infancy. Her four surviving children were her two sons Prince Christian Victor of Schleswig-Holstein, Albert, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, her two daughters Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, and Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein. She died on 9 June 1923. Louise Caroline Alberta was born on March 18, 1848. She married John Campbell, Lord Lorne and later 9th Duke of Argyll. She was the first female sculptor to have a statue erected in a public place. LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage to John Campbell was not always a happy alliance and it has been suggested that he had homosexual leanings. Louise was unable to have children and was the only one of Victoria and AlbertÃ¢â¬â¢s children to not become a parent. She died on December 3, 1939 and was cremated. ArthurShow MoreRelatedThe Last Reigning Monarch Of Hawaii1165 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesannexation of Hawaii into the United States. Her name was Queen Liliuokalani. She came to power in Hawaii during a time when white planters ran the economy in the main islands. She fought many things such as the Bayonet Constitution and was even imprisoned for part of her life. She was educated musically and wrote several songs, including Aloha Oe. She worked to better the Hawaiian Islands in many ways, including working on school for HawaiiÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. Queen Liliuokalani was an important figure during the annexationRead MoreHawaii s First And Last Queen1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHawaiiÃ¢â¬â¢s First and Last Queen The last reigning monarch of Hawaii did everything in her power to oppose the annexation of Hawaii into the United States without the use of violent protests. Her name was Queen Liliuokalani. She came to power in Hawaii during a time when white planters ran the economy on the main islands. She succeeded her brother, the great Hawaiian king, King Kalakaua, who also happened to her her beloved brother. She took a stand for many things such as the Bayonet ConstitutionRead MoreHow English Literature Affects the Monarchy2997 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages Throughout his years of reign, he married six women including: Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr. In 1527, Henry divorced Catherine of Aragon, since she could no longer conceive children, and became infatuated with Anne Boleyn (Henrys Divorce). This decision led to the English Protestant Reformation which were Ã¢â¬Å"a series of events...[in] which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman CatholicRead MoreEssay about The Last Tsar of Russia2202 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAlexandrovich Romanov, was the son of Emperor Alexander III and Empress Maria Feodorvna of Russia, who was the former Princess Damar of Denmark, and was the grandson of royalty from Russia and Denmark on his maternal and paternal sides.1 He married to Queen VictoriaÃ¢â¬â¢s granddaughter, Alexandra of Hesse-Darmstadt. Part of the engagement included a stipulation that Alexandra convert her faith from Lutheranism to Russian Orthodox2, a requirement that made her reluctant to accept his proposal at first. HoweverRead More Analysis of A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens Essays3690 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesAnalysis of A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol is a novel written by Charles Dickens (1812-1870) during the Victorian age, an era that took its name from Queen Victoria, England titular ruler from 1819-1901. Under Queen VictoriaÃ¢â¬â¢s rule, London reigned the worlds dominate city country and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s incomparable center of commerce, culture and government. At this time LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s industrial age contributed to a large share of the manpower and capital that brought the
Politics (bullet 1) In college, Tesla observed the engine and after studying it, determined a way to take advantage of alternating current. A few years later, he expanded upon his original ideas regarding alternating current and designed plans for an induction motor, which would use alternating current. When he was 27, he went to work for Continental Edison Company where he realized his creation of an induction motor. The following year, Tesla moved to the United States with little more than the clothes on his back and began his new adventure in America. He landed a job with Thomas Edison, but they did not work well together and parted ways within a fairly short period of time. Shortly after leaving Edison, George WestinghouseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Richardson planned to have a tower built in Timmins and sought out an area in Minnesota to have a receiver coil built. Because local farmers in Minnesota were concerned the project may harm their cattle, they voluntarily participated in the pro ject to see how it might affect their livelihood. After Richardson had organized a place in Canada to gather the electricity and a place in Minnesota to collect the wireless transmission of electricity, the head office of his company heard about the proposal and immediately blocked the transmission and shut down the proposal. The cancellation was surprising because the entire project was already funded. Senator Carter, who had originally tried to get wireless electricity towers started in Canada, tried yet again to get electricity exported from his province so that they could make a profit by selling the electricity elsewhere. Carter took the Timmins proposal and began working on finding places and people to set up a tower in his province and a receiver coil in another. As he was building his network of people who accepted and bought into the proposal, he suddenly found that the government of Newfoundland blocking his experiment. Yet again, the ability to provide electricity wirelessly was thwarted by an invisible hand. Why would anyone want to block the ability to provide electricity to many people inShow MoreRelatedPolitics2099 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEssay Question: Define Ã¢â¬Å"politicsÃ¢â¬ in your own words relate your definition to that of the classical scholars discussed in class. Which of the three do you prefer and why. Introduction: Many people disagree about what the word politics can mean and how it is used in our country. It is often brought up in a negative manor that leads people to believe that politics itself is evil. The problem is, that the majority of our country canÃ¢â¬â¢t give a strong definition of what politics is to begin with. But itRead MorePresidential Election : Politics And Politics2225 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesindependent Pew Research Center exposed in clear terms the extent of political polarization in America, illustrating in hard data the schism thatÃ¢â¬â¢s opened up between the Democratic and Republican over the last thirty years. Unquestionably, American politics have polarized over the last several decades. The question of from where American political polarization flows, however, remains unanswered. In particular, political scientists have occupied themselves with the question of who, exactly, providesRead MorePolitics and Ethics2332 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesPolitics is truly one of th e greatest developments that mankind has ever had the notion to make. Can you imagine our lives without? I really cannot see our lives operating as smoothly without the existence of politics in one form or another. Almost everything we do in our lives is somehow linked either directly or indirectly to some sort of political ideology. Whether you are buying a candy bar at the store or negotiating international business mergers, politics has had a hand in it. Since politicsRead MoreOrganisational Politics3334 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesINTRODUCTION: Ã¢â¬Å"Politics is how interests and influence play out in an institution.Ã¢â¬ - Benjamin Franklin Organisation is a coalition of interest, so exists in the identification and solution of the problem. In the process of negotiation for consensus, politicking takes place. Therefore, the existence of power and politics is the inevitable phenomena in every organisation. In order to manage and to be managed in the organisation efficiently every individual starting from the topRead MoreIs Politics A Politician?4068 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesRetail politics can best be described as gaining support or backing for an individual through direct personal connection and networking. This type of politics is incredibly important because it creates a more intimate and special kind of deal that makes that person more willing to support a particular politician. Not to mention it can help on a personal level by moving up social and trust levels, which is a huge part of politics. This kind of politics is different than wholesale politics which targetsRead MoreOrganizational Power and Politics1511 Word s Ã |Ã 7 PagesPower and Politics Some employees believe that politics and power in the workplace is a game that corporate and management plays. However, games usually have rules to follow, a referee or judge, and an ending with a winner. Although politics has a winner, this game never ends, the rules are always subject to change, and there is no referee or spokesperson. Corporate traditions establish much of the biased game of politics that is played on the organizational level. Unfortunately, politics and powerRead MorePolarization in Us Politics1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnalyze the evidence that American politics is becoming more polarized. If so, is this a reaction to the polarization of political elites? Approx 1500 words 13/12/10 The election of 2008... marked the end of an epoch. No longer could Republicans count on the basic conservatism of the American people, the reflexive hostility to candidates who favour big government (Darman, 2010, 34) In the 1970s and 1980s there was a consensus that the importance of political parties was in declineRead MoreComparative Politics Essay1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnecessary tool in the belt of any political scientist. Comparative politics is one of three main subfields in political science, alongside political theory and international relations. While political theory deals with theoretical issues about democracy, justice et cetera, comparative politics deals with more empirical questions. To use an example cited by Daniele Caramani in Ã¢â¬ËComparative PoliticsÃ¢â¬â¢ (2011), comparative politics is not interested in whether or not participation is good for democracyRead MorePolitics, Power And Communication1633 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY Case Study Name: Jun Fu (Fu Jun) Student number: 130336769 Module: Com3077: Politics, Power and Communication Submission date: 18/04/2016 Word count: 1452 words I declare that this assignment is my own work and that I have correctly acknowledged the work of others. This assignment is in accordance with University and School guidance on good academic conduct. The iconic image on social media: how a single image transformed the debate on refugee and immigrationRead More Money In Politics Essay993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Money in Politics nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In the world of politics today there are many problems. Nasty campaigning and Slamming ones opponent have become commonplace in todays world. This is a very Distinct problem. Yet the root of the problem isnt the candidates themselves, in most Cases. The national committees for the republicans and the democrats is at the true heart Of the problem. The money which is spent by those massive institutions to their partys
Academic confidence/success did poorly in school at Oregon and since then I have felt inadequate. If can push myself to do well in school I believe will gain that confidence back. Personal confidence For a lot of my life have felt introverted and quiet. I dont like attention called onto me. Taking time off after Oregon helped me to realize that much of that wasnt because was a shy person- it was because was holding myself back room who I want to be due to a lack of personal self-confidence.This semester have chosen to take a vocal class in which I will have to perform in front of other- a thought that quite frightens me actually. But singing is something that I like to do when I am alone, so I thought maybe singing in front of other would be a good challenge for me and help me to gain that confidence. We will write a custom essay sample on Wise Choice Process or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The value I place on being successful in college is 9. My expectation of being a success in college is probably a 7 right now. Multiplied together, this gives me n achievement motivation score of 63.I want to be successful because I feel college is really the only significant next step towards bringing me to where I want to be. Unfortunately I rated my expectation of success so low because lack the self-confidence to feel like I will be able to make it happen. Vie failed so many times in the past and fear that I will only let myself and others down again. I understand this is probably a victim mindset, and truly want to change that. I have been taking baby steps towards my goals and I can feel a slight change in my attitude already.If you had asked me to rate my expectation of success a few months ago I would have rated it much lower. Since being diagnosed with ADD I have actively sought out a psychiatrist with whom I meet monthly. I have begun to take medication to help me better focus on my studies, and have gone to workshops on the weekends to learn about how to learn differently and more effectively with ADD Im still working towards success, and I feel like my self-confidence will become much higher when I see just how much my efforts have paid off academically.